Benign prostate hyperplasia

 
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Prostate is a single gland, which is located in men below bladder.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a disease, which affects about 50% of men over 50 yrs.

It is characterized by hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of large, fairly discrete nodules in the periurethral region of the prostate. When sufficiently large, the nodules compress the urethral canal to cause partial, or sometimes virtually complete, obstruction of the urethra which interferes the normal flow of urine. It leads to symptoms of urinary hesitancy, frequent urination, increased risk of urinary tract infections and urinary retention.

Symptoms:
Benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms are classified as obstructive or irritative. Obstructive symptoms include hesitancy, intermittency, incomplete voiding, weak urinary stream, and straining.

Irritative symptoms include frequency of urination, which is called nocturia when occurring at night time, and urgency (compelling need to void that can not be deferred). These obstructive and irritative symptoms are evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, designed to assess the severity of BPH.

BPH can be a progressive disease, especially if left untreated. Incomplete voiding results in stasis of bacteria in the bladder residue and an increased risk of urinary tract infections. Urinary bladder stones, are formed from the crystallisation of salts in the residual urine. Urinary retention, termed acute or chronic, is another form of progression. Acute urinary retention is the inability to void, while in chronic urinary retention the residual urinary volume gradually increases, and the bladder distends. Some patients who suffer from chronic urinary retention may eventually progress to renal failure, a condition termed obstructive uropathy.

Surgical treatment:
If medical treatment fails, transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) surgery may need to be performed. This involves removing (part of) the prostate through the urethra. There are also a number of new methods for reducing the size of an enlarged prostate, some of which have not been around long enough to fully establish their safety or side effects. These include various methods to destroy or remove part of the excess tissue while trying to avoid damaging what's left. Transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate (TVP), laser TURP, visual laser ablation (VLAP), Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT), TransUrethral Needle Ablation (TUNA), ethanol injection, and others are studied as alternatives.

Newer techniques involving lasers in urology have emerged in the last 5-10 years, starting with the VLAP technique involving the Nd:YAG laser with contact on the prostatic tissue. A similar technology called Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate (PVP) with the GreenLight (KTP) laser have emerged very recently. This procedure involves a high powered 80 Watt KTP laser with a 550 micrometre laser fiber inserted into the prostate. This fiber has an internal reflection with a 70 degree deflecting angle. It is used to vaporize the tissue to the prostatic capsule. KTP lasers target haemoglobin as the chromophore and typically have a penetration depth of 2.0mm (four times deeper than holmium).

Another procedure termed Holmium Laser Ablation of the Prostate (HoLAP) has also been gaining acceptance around the world. Like KTP the delivery device for HoLAP procedures is a 550um disposable side-firing fiber that directs the beam from a high powered 100 Watt laser at a 70degree from the fiber axis. The holmium wavelength is 2,140nm, which falls within the infrared portion of the spectrum and is invisible to the naked eye. Where KTP relies on haemoglobin as a chromophore, water within the target tissue is the chromophore for Holmium lasers. The penetration depth of Holmium lasers is <0.5mm avoiding complications associated with tissue necrosis often found with the deeper penetration and lower peak powers of KTP.

Both wavelengths, KTP and Holmium, ablate approximately one to two grams of tissue per minute.It is characterized by hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of large, fairly discrete nodules in the periurethral region of the prostate. When sufficiently large, the nodules compress the urethral canal to cause partial, or sometimes virtually complete, obstruction of the urethra which interferes the normal flow of urine. It leads to symptoms of urinary hesitancy, frequent urination, increased risk of urinary tract infections and urinary retention.

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Copyright © Maciej Szwedowski
projekt ORNAVI strony internetowe

Prywatny gabinet urologiczny
lek. med. Maciej Szwedowski
Opole, ul. 11-go Listopada 6 (wyspa Pasieka)

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